Perfume and Headache
JN- Integr Physiol Behav Sci 30(2):157-68
TI- Mesothalamic discharge in a chronic pain, allergy and fluid retention syndrome (case report).
AU- Andy OJ; Nicholas W; Dearman C;
PY- 1995 Apr-Jun
AB- A 32-year-old woman was bedridden for a year because of chronic pain and headaches. She had insomnia, depression, suicidal thoughts and a severe chemical allergy. She had been on steroid therapy for two years and became Cushingoid with striae in the arm pits, groins and abdomen. However, she had no hypertension, nor the buffalo fat and hirsutism. She was very edematous, with a weight gain from 112 to 180 lbs. The fluid retention did not conform to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone. Studies revealed abnormal scalp EEG discharges and high-voltage seizure discharges in the posterior thalamus. Electrothalamic stimulation suppressed the thalamic discharges and relieved the patientís pelvic pain and headaches. After one month of several thalamic stimulations per day, she was able to get out of bed and ambulate. In addition, the patient no longer was edematous and was tolerating perfumes and floor detergents. Steroids were progressively reduced without complications of withdrawal. She went from a completely steroid dependent state to independent during the first 1-1/2 yrs of thalamic stimulation. With continued thalamic stimulation she has done well for 8-1/2 yrs, weighs 112 lbs, keeps house and drives a car. Itís speculated the illness is a chronic pain multiple syndrome predominantly due to mesothalamic discharges and body infirmities. The mesothalamic discharge implicated neural networks, which represent biologic systems, i.e. pain, sleep, fluid retention, etc. Therapeutic stimulation attenuates the discharges and the neural networks return to their normal set points of homeostasis.
MH- Adult; Case Report; Chronic Disease; Corticotropin (DU); Cortisone (BL); Edema (*PP); Electric Stimulation; Electrodes, Implanted; Electroencephalography; Female; Human; Hypersensitivity (*PP); Pain (*PP); Thalamus (*PP);
JN- J Am Coll Nutr 12(6):693-702
TI- Symptom and personality profiles of young adults from a college student population with self-reported illness from foods and chemicals.
AU- Bell IR; Schwartz GE; Peterson JM; Amend D;
PY- 1993 Dec
AB- Despite much debate over a presumptively somatic vs psychological etiology of nonatopic food and chemical sensitivities, little systematic research has addressed the issues. The present study investigated self-reported illness from several common foods (wheat, dairy, eggs) and chemicals (pesticide, car exhaust, paint, perfume, new carpet), symptom patterns, and psychological profiles of a sample of young adult college students (n = 490, age 19.4 +/-2.4, 52% female/48% male). Subjects were divided into 4 groups on the basis of sample medians for frequency of illness from the foods (FI) and chemicals (CI); high FI with high CI (FI/CI), high FI alone, high CI alone, and NOILL (low FI and CI). FI was associated with more defensiveness (denial of negativity) while CI was linked with more shyness (avoidance of novelty). Women outnumbered men in all groups (FI/CI: 61%; FI: 80% CI: 55%) except the NOILL (40% women). Nevertheless, the FI/CI, FI, and/or CI groups still had significantly higher total symptom scores as well as more indigestion, headache, and memory trouble than did the NOILL group, even after depression, anxiety, shyness, defensiveness, and gender were covaried. The illness groups reported significantly more limitation of foods that mobilize endogenous opioids or generate exogenous opioids (sweets, fats, bread) as well as more illness from opiate drugs, small amounts of beverage alcohol, and late meals. Nasal symptoms from pollens or animals were more common in the FI/CI (42%) and CI (42%) than in FI (26%) or NOILL (28%) groups. Premenstrual tension syndrome and irritable bowel were also more common in the FI/CI group. The findings indicate that young adults outside the clinical setting who are relatively higher in FI and/or CI have distinctive symptom and psychological patterns. Covariate analyses suggest that important symptoms in FI and CI individuals such as indigestion, headache, and memory problems may occur in addition to rather than as simply part of emotional distress. The data are consistent with a previously hypothesized role of olfactory-limbic and hypothalamic pathways and with a time-dependent sensitization model for illness from foods and chemicals.
MH- Adolescence; Adult; Anxiety; Defense Mechanisms; Depression; Drug Hypersensitivity (*PX); Female; Food Hypersensitivity (*PX); Human;
Male; Personality (*); Sex Characteristics; Shyness;
JN- Biol Psychiatry 35(11):857-63
TI- Sensitization to early life stress and response to chemical odors in older adults.
AU- Bell IR; Schwartz GE; Amend D; Peterson JM; Stini WA;
PY- 1994 Jun 1
AB- This study examined the hypothesis that older persons who currently report illness from environmental chemical odors (cacosmia) may have experienced higher levels of stress early in life than did noncacosmic controls. The hypothesis derives from a time-dependent sensitization (TDS) model for cacosmia (Bell et al 1992) that predicts a relative interchangeability of stress and chemicals in inducing and eliciting sensitized responses in vulnerable individuals. Subjects were selected from those in the top 24% (cacosmic) and bottom 27% (noncacosmic) of a sample of 192 older adults (mean age 73.8 years) for self-reported frequency of illness form the odors of pesticide, car exhaust, paint, perfume, and new carpet. As in previous investigations, cacosmics were younger, more depressed, and more shy; cacosmics also included a higher proportion of women (83% versus 61%). As predicted, cacosmics rated themselves higher in stress for the first four decades of their lives, but not the recent past or present, even after controlling for depression, anxiety, hostility, shyness, age, and gender. Cacosmics reported increased prevalence of physician-diagnosed nasal allergies, breast cysts, hypothyroidism, sinusitis, food sensitivities, irritable bowel, and migraine headache. Only 4% of the overall sample (including 9% of the cacosmics) acknowledged the controversial physician diagnosis of "chemical sensitivity." The replicated observation of greater shyness in cacosmics is consistent with the ability of hyperreactivity to novelty to predict enhanced susceptibility to TDS from low levels of pharmacological agents in animals. The findings support a TDS model for cacosmia and suggest that cacosmia as a symptom identifies a large subset of the nonindustrial population with significant psychophysiological health problems that merit further objective examination.
MH- Aged; Environmental Exposure (*); Female; Human; Hypersensitivity (*PX); Life Change Events (*); Male; Middle Age; Personality Development (*); Risk Factors; Sick Role; Smell (*); Support, Non-U.S. Govít; Support, U.S. Govít, P.H.S.;
JN- Headache 34(4):214-6
TI- Precipitating factors in migraine: a retrospective review of 494 patients.
AU- Robbins L;
PY- 1994 Apr
AB- The predominance of certain triggers for migraine was assessed in 494 migraine patients. Stress (62%) was the most frequently cited precipitant. Weather changes (43%), missing a meal (40%), and bright sunlight (38%) were also prominent factors. Sexual activity (5%) was the precipitant cited by the least number of patients. Significant differences were found between men and women in their responses to weather changes, perfumes, cigarette smoke, missing a meal, and sexual activity. Spring was cited by 14% of patients as a time for increased migraine attacks, followed by fall (13%), summer (11%), and winter (7%).
MH- Adolescence; Adult; Female; Human; Male; Middle Age; Migraine (*ET); Retrospective Studies; Seasons; Sex Characteristics; Stress (CO);
JN- Aust N Z J Med 18(3):311-7
TI- Fifty years of migraine research.
AU- Lance JW;
PY- 1988 May
AB- The prevalence of ice-pick pains and ice-cream headache in migrainous patients and their localisation to the habitual site of migraine headache, suggest that segments of the central pain pathways remain hyperexcitable between spontaneous attacks. Excessive afferent stimulation (flashing lights, noise, strong perfumes) or hypothalamic changes resulting from emotion, stress or the operation of some internal clock may set in motion brainstem mechanisms, including spontaneous unilateral or bilateral discharge of pain pathways. Studies in the experimental animal have shown that certain monoaminergic brainstem nuclei can influence the cerebral circulation unilaterally and that they and the trigeminal system can induce a reflex dilatation of the external carotid circulation. Descending pathways from the same brainstem nuclei cause the adrenal gland to secrete noradrenaline, which in turn can release serotonin from blood platelets. Free serotonin may become adsorbed to the arterial wall, thus increasing sensitivity to pain, augmenting afferent input and adding a pulsating quality to migrainous pain. Both neural and vascular components of migraine implicate monoamines, specifically noradrenaline and serotonin, as neurotransmitters and humoral agents. The recent pharmacological classification of serotonin (5HT) receptors indicates that agonists of a subset of the 5HT1 receptor and antagonists of 5HT2 receptors are most likely to be helpful in the treatment of migraine.
MH- Animal; History of Medicine, 20th Cent.; Human; Migraine (ET/*HI/PP/TH); Research; Support, Non-U.S. Govít;
JN- Allergy 51(6):434-9
TI- Placebo-controlled challenges with perfume in patients with asthma-like symptoms.
AU- Millqvist E; LŲwhagen O;
PY- 1996 Jun
AB- A group of nine patients with respiratory symptoms after nonspecific irritating stimuli, but without any IgE-mediated allergy or demonstrable bronchial obstruction, were referred to the asthma/allergy outpatient department for evaluation of suspected asthma. In order to find a provocation model and objectively assess these patientsí symptoms in controlled studies, provocation with perfume or placebo was performed. The same patients were also subjected to perfume provocation with or without a carbon filter mask to ascertain whether breathing through a filter with active carbon could prevent the symptoms. The patients breathed through the mouth during the provocations, as they used a nasal clamp to prevent any smell of perfume. We found that the patientsí earlier symptoms could be verified by perfume provocation. Breathing through the carbon filter had no protective effect. The conclusion is that symptoms suggesting hyperreactivity of the respiratory tract and asthma can be provoked by perfume without the presence of bronchial obstruction, and that using a carbon filter mask has no preventive effect. The symptoms are not transmitted via the olfactory nerve, since the patients could not smell the perfume, but they may have been induced by a trigeminal reflex via the respiratory tract or by the eyes.
MH- Adult; Asthma (*DI/ET); Bronchial Provocation Tests (*); Double-Blind Method; Female; Human; Male; Masks; Middle Age; Perfume (*AE);
JN- Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 75(5):429-33
TI- Inhalation challenge effects of perfume scent strips in patients with asthma.
AU- Kumar P; Caradonna-Graham VM; Gupta S; Cai X; Rao PN; Thompson J;
PY- 1995 Nov
AB- BACKGROUND: Perfume- and cologne-scented advertisement strips are widely used. There are, however, very few data on the adverse effects of perfume inhalation in asthmatic subjects. OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to determine whether perfume inhalation from magazine scent strips could exacerbate asthma. METHODS: Twenty-nine asthmatic adults and 13 normal subjects were included in the study. Histories were obtained and physical examinations performed. Asthma severity was determined by clinical criteria of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). Skin prick tests with common inhalant allergens and with the perfume under investigation were also performed. Four bronchial inhalation challenges were performed on each subject using commercial perfume scented strips, filter paper impregnated with perfume identical to that of the commercial strips, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and normal saline, respectively. Symptoms and signs were recorded before and after challenges. Pulmonary function studies were performed before and at 10, 20, and 30 minutes after challenges. RESULTS: Inhalational challenges using perfume produced significant declines in FEV1 in asthmatic patients when compared with control subjects. No significant change in FEV1 was noted after saline (placebo) challenge in asthmatic patients. The percent decline in FEV1 was significantly greater after challenge in severely asthmatic patients as compared with those with mild asthma. Chest tightness and wheezing occurred in 20.7% of asthmatic patients after perfume challenges. Asthmatic exacerbations after perfume challenge occurred in 36%, 17%, and 8% of patients with severe, moderate, and mild asthma, respectively. Patients with atopic asthma had greater decreases in FEV1 after perfume challenge when compared with patients with nonallergic asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Perfume-scented strips in magazines can cause exacerbations of symptoms and airway obstruction in asthmatic patients. Severe and atopic asthma increases risk of adverse respiratory reactions to perfumes.
MH- Administration, Inhalation; Adult; Asthma (*CI/PP); Female; Forced Expiratory Volume; Human; Male; Middle Age; Perfume (*AE); Support, Non-U.S. Govít;
JN- Hum Biol 68(3):405-14
TI- Genetic and environmental factors associated with asthma.
AU- Bener A;
PY- 1996 Jun
AB- We investigate the familial and environmental risk factors associated with asthma among United Arab Emirates schoolchildren aged 6-14 years. A cross-sectional study of 850 schoolchildren living in both urban and rural areas (average age 9.36 +/- 2.11 years; 46.8% boys, 53.2% girls) was conducted using self-administered questionnaires between October 1992 and May 1993. The population sample had a high prevalence rate of diagnosed asthma (13.6%) and allergic rhinitis (22.9%). The frequency of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema among parents and siblings reflected the same pattern as that seen in the children. Environmental risk factors associated with asthma were pets, medicine, plants, dust storm, physical exercise, humidity, and perfume. All other factors, such as foods, climate, and parental smoking, showed no apparent relation to the development of asthma. The logistic regression analysis showed that parental asthma, plants, perfume, dust storm, humidity, and pets were the only significant predictors after adjusting for sex and other confounding covariates in the model. In conclusion, risk factors for asthma identified by our study are similar to those found in other community-based studies. Consistencies and discrepancies between our findings and those from other studies with respect to asthma risk factors support the hypothesis that asthma is a multifactorial disease related to both familial and environmental influences.
MH- Adolescence; Age Distribution; Asthma (EP/*ET/*GE/PP); Child;
Cross-Sectional Studies; Data Collection; Environmental Pollution (*AE); Female; Human; Incidence; Logistic Models; Male; Risk Factors; Sex Distribution; Support, Non-U.S. Govít; United Arab Emirates (EP);
JN- Ugeskr Laeger 153(13):939-40
TI- [Occupational asthma caused by scented gravel in cat litter boxes] AU- Jensen OC; Petersen I;
PY- 1991 Mar 25
AB- Perfumes are now added to articles in everyday use to an increasing extent. One example of this is addition of perfume to gravel in cat toilets. It is recognized that perfumes may cause toxic and allergic skin reactions while perfume as the cause of asthma is not so well recognized. In the case described here, exposure to industrial perfume resulted in asthma on account of irritation.
MH- Acrolein (AA/AE); Adult; Air Pollutants, Occupational (*AE); Alcohols, Amyl (AE); Animal; Animal Husbandry; Asthma (*CI/DI/PP); Case Report; Cats; English Abstract; Human; Male; Occupational Diseases (*CI/DI/PP); Peak Expiratory Flow Rate; Perfume (*AE); Terpenes (AE);
JN- Med Tr Prom Ekol (5):15-9
TI- [Air pollution and the prevalence of bronchial asthma among the pediatric population of Moscow] AU- Revich BA;
AB- The article presents results of descriptive epidemiologic study of bronchial asthma among children in Moscow where the incidence is steadily growing. Since 1947 average prevalence of bronchial asthma in Moscow has increased over 7 times, being considerably uneven over the territory. The average prevalence equals 6.9/1,000, but on 56% of the territory it is double higher. Sites of the higher occurrence are localized in the living area situated near the Zoo, horse races, perfume factory and other enterprises, near major automobile roads. Statistic analysis of the prevalence if correlated with concentrations of pollutants in the air proved that nitrogen oxides induce 60% of the cases. No differences in some risk factors (heredity, living conditions, etc.) were revealed by the poll among families of the ailing children residing in the districts with variable air pollution. The results helped to restructure pediatric allergologic service in the city.
SN- English Abstract
MH- Air Pollutants (AE); Air Pollution (*AE/SN); Asthma (*EP/ET); Child; English Abstract; Human; Moscow (EP); Prevalence; Risk Factors; Urban Population (*SN);
JN- Am J Med 80(1):18-22
TI- Effect of odors in asthma.
AU- Shim C; Williams MH Jr;
PY- 1986 Jan
AB- Many patients complain that some odors worsen their asthma. Perfume and cologne are two of the most frequently mentioned offenders. Four patients with a history of worsening of asthma on exposure to cologne underwent challenge with a cologne, and their pulmonary function was tested before, during, and after the exposure. Forced expiratory volume in one second declined 18 to 58 percent below the baseline period during the 10-minute exposure and gradually increased in the next 20 minutes. Saline placebo pretreatment did not affect the response to subsequent challenge. Single-blind pretreatment with metaproterenol and atropine prevented decline in one-second forced expiratory volume in three of four patients and blunted the response in the other. Cromolyn sodium prevented decline in one of four, and occlusion of nostrils prevented decline in one of three. A survey of 60 asthmatic patients revealed a history of respiratory symptoms in 57 on exposure to one or more common odors. Odors are an important cause of worsening of asthma.
MH- Adult; Asthma (*ET/PC); Atropine (TU); Bronchial Provocation Tests; Cromolyn Sodium (TU); Female; Forced Expiratory Volume; Household Products (AE); Human; Insecticides (AE); Male; Middle Age; Odors (*); Orciprenaline (TU); Perfume (*AE); Smoke (AE); Time Factors; Tobacco;
JN- Allergy 42(5):374-81
TI- Flowers and other trigger factors in asthma and rhinitisóan inquiry study.
AU- Eriksson NE; LŲwhagen O; Nilsson JE; Norrlind K; Wihl JA;
PY- 1987 Jul
AB- Six hundred and eighty adult patients with asthma and/or rhinitis were questioned about symptoms elicited by 46 different flowers and 10 common non-specific environmental trigger factors listed in a questionnaire. Flowers or birch twigs were reported to elicit symptoms in 79% of the patients, somewhat more often in rhinitis tha
JN- Ann Dermatol Venereol 113(1):31-41
TI- [Clinical forms of skin manifestations in allergy to perfume]
AU- Meynadier JM; Meynadier J; Peyron JL; Peyron L;
AB- Perfumes are increasingly used in an ever wider variety of fields, including perfumes proper, cosmetic products, hygienic products, drugs, detergents and other household products, plastics, industrial greases, oils and solvents, foods, etc. Their composition is usually complex; it involves numerous natural and synthetic sweet-smelling constituents, more than 5,000 of which are known (13). Perfumes may produce toxic and, more often, allergic respiratory disorders (asthma), as well as neurological (10) and cutaneous disorders. They are the most common cause of skin allergy to cosmetic products (1, 11) and one of the most important causes of skin allergy to topical drugs or even to syrups which may reactivate contact dermatitis (24). People engaged in the manufacturing of these products may become sensitized to perfumes.
MH- Adult; Aged; Dermatitis, Contact (*DI/ET/PA); Diagnosis, Differential; Eczema (DI); English Abstract; Female; Human; Male; Middle Age; Perfume (*AE); Pruritus (DI); Skin (PA); Urticaria (DI);
JN- Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 75(3):571-5
TI- Neurotoxic properties of musk ambrette.
AU- Spencer PS; Bischoff-Fenton MC; Moreno OM; Opdyke DL; Ford RA;
PY- 1984 Sep 30
AB- Musk ambrette (2,6-dinitro-3-methoxy-4-tert-butyltoluene), a nitro-musk compound widely used as a fixative in fragrance formulations and found to a lesser degree in flavor compositions, produces hindlimb weakness when administered in the diet or applied to skin of rats for periods up to 12 weeks. Underlying neuropathologic changes consist of primary demyelination and distal axonal degeneration in selected regions of the central and peripheral nervous system. Murine neurological disease induced by musk ambrette occurs at doses well above estimated maximum daily human exposure. Lifetime experimental neurotoxicology studies using lower concentrations of musk ambrette for prolonged periods would be needed for the estimation of human risk.
MH- Animal; Demyelinating Diseases (CI); Dinitrobenzenes (*TO); Female; Male; Nervous System (*DE/PA); Nitrobenzenes (*TO); Perfume (*TO); Rats; Rats, Inbred Strains; Support, Non-U.S. Govít; Support, U.S. Govít, P.H.S.; Tetrahydronaphthalenes (TO);
JN- Science 204(4393):633-5
TI- Neurotoxic fragrance produces ceroid and myelin disease.
AU- Spencer PS; Sterman AB; Horoupian DS; Foulds MM;
PY- 1979 May 11
AB- Acetyl ethyl tetramethyl tetralin (AETT), a component of soaps, deodorants, and cosmetics, produces hyperirritability and limb weakness in rats repeatedly exposed to the compound. Brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves are discolored blue, show progressive neuronal ceroid degeneration, and develop spectacular myelin bubbling. These neurotoxic properties of AETT provide the basis for industryís decision to withdraw the compound from consumer products. In addition, AETT offers the experimentalist a new probe to explore the etiology and pathogeneses of human ceroid and myelin diseases.
MH- Animal; Ceroid; Demyelinating Diseases (*CI/PA); Movement Disorders (CI); Naphthalenes (*TO); Neurotoxins; Perfume (*TO); Pigmentation Disorders (*CI); Rats; Schwann Cells (PA); Support, U.S. Govít, Non-P.H.S.; Support, U.S. Govít, P.H.S.; Tetrahydronaphthalenes (*TO);
JN- Food Chem Toxicol 28(1):55-61
TI- 90-day dermal toxicity study and neurotoxicity evaluation of nitromusks in the albino rat.
AU- Ford RA; Api AM; Newberne PM;
PY- 1990 Jan
AB- Musk ketone, musk xylene, musk tibetene and moskene, synthetic musks used in fragrances, were applied dermally to rats in daily doses of 240 (musk ketone and musk xylene only), 75, 24 or 7.5 mg/kg body weight for 90 days. The chemically related musk ambrette, a known neurotoxin in rats, was used as a positive control. While musk ambrette was clearly neurotoxic and caused testicular atrophy, as had been previously reported, the other compounds tested caused neither effect. The only effects of application of these materials were some organ weight changes at the higher doses, but these were not associated with histopathological changes in any of the tissues. The no-effect levels were: musk ketone, 75 mg/kg for males and females; musk xylene, 75 mg/kg for males and 24 mg/kg for females; moskene, 24 mg/kg for males and 75 mg/kg (highest dose administered) for females; and musk tibetene, 75 mg/kg (highest dose) for males and females.
MH- Administration, Topical; Animal; Body Weight (DE); Dinitrobenzenes (TO); Female; Indans (TO); Kidney (DE); Liver (DE); Male; Molecular Structure; Nervous System (*DE); Organ Weight (DE); Perfume (AD/*TO); Rats; Rats, Inbred Strains; Skin Absorption; Xylenes (TO);
JN- Biochem Pharmacol 29(11):1531-5
TI- Uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in vitro by the neurotoxic fragrance compound acetyl ethyl tetramethyl tetralin and its putative metabolite.
AU- Cammer W;
PY- 1980 Jun 1
MH- Alcohol, Ethyl (PD); Animal; Brain (ME); In Vitro; Mitochondria (EN); Mitochondria, Liver (ME); Naphthalenes (*PD); Oxidative Phosphorylation (*DE); Oxygen Consumption (DE); Perfume (*); Rats; Support, U.S. Govít, P.H.S.; Tetrahydronaphthalenes (*PD); Uncoupling Agents (*);
JN- J Am Acad Dermatol 21(4 Pt 2):880-4
TI- How to instruct patients sensitive to fragrances.
AU- Larsen WG;
PY- 1989 Oct
AB- Patients who are sensitive to fragrances should either use fragrance-free cosmetics or undergo a repeat open application test to the cosmetic or perfume to determine sensitivity. Unusual reactions include systemic contact dermatitis due to balsam of Peru, benzyl alcohol, and menthol. Some responses involve pigmented eruptions due to phototoxic or photoallergic agents in perfumes and incense. Other reactions include consort dermatitis and reactions to toothpastes, gum and perfumes in paper products, sanitary napkins, ostomy pastes, and detergents.
MH- Balsams; Dermatitis, Contact (*ET); Environmental Exposure; Erythema (ET); Human; Patient Education (*); Perfume (*AE);
JN- Contact Dermatitis 34( 6): 423-6
TI- Natural ingredients based cosmetics. Content of selected fragrance sensitizers.
AU- Rastogi SC; Johansen JD;
PY- 1996 Jun
AB- In the present study, we have investigated 42 cosmetic products based on natural ingredients for content of 11 fragrance substances: geraniol, hydroxycitronellal, eugenol, isoeugenol, cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, alpha-amylcinnamic aldehyde, citral, coumarin, dihydrocoumarin and alpha-hexylcinnamic aldehyde. The study revealed that the 91% (20/22) of the natural ingredients based perfumes contained 0.027%-7.706% of 1 to 7 of the target fragrances. Between 1 and 5 of the chemically defined synthetic constituents of fragrance mix were found in 82% (18/22) of the perfumes. 35% (7/20) of the other cosmetic products (shampoos, creams, tonics, etc) were found to contain 0.0003-0.0820% of 1 to 3 of the target fragrances. Relatively high concentrations of hydroxycitronellal, coumarin, cinnamic alcohol and alpha-amyl cinnamic aldehyde were found in some of the investigated products. The detection of hydroxycitronellal and alpha-hexylcinnamic aldehyde in some of the products demonstrates that artificial fragrances, i.e., compounds not yet regarded as natural substances, may be present in products claimed to be based on natural ingredients.
MH- Acrolein*; Alcohol, Propyl*; Aldehydes*; Allergens*; Cosmetics*; Coumarins*; Emollients*; Eugenol*; Hair Preparations*; Human; Perfume*; Support, Non-U.S. Govít;
JN- Am J Contact Dermat 7(2):65-76
TI- Allergic contact dermatitis to fragrance: a review.
AU- Scheinman PL;
PY- 1996 Jun
AB- BACKGROUND: Allergy to fragrance is the most common cause of cosmetic contact dermatitis and therefore constitutes a significant clinical problem. The widespread use of fragranced materials in skin care and household products is probably the most important reason for the high incidence of fragrance sensitization. OBJECTIVE: This report will summarize the history of fragrance, review how to detect and evaluate fragrance allergy, discuss the problems inherent in patch testing with the fragrance mix and its constituents, describe systemic contact dermatitis from ingestion of certain flavors, and give suggestions for fragrance-sensitive patients. CONCLUSION: The use of fragrance mix in patch testing has been invaluable in detecting fragrance allergy. Continued investigation into positive patch test responses to fragrance in scented products is essential in helping to identify new fragrance allergens. Additionally, more cooperation is necessary between industry and dermatologists in assisting patients to avoid proven allergens.
MH- Cosmetics (AE); Dermatitis, Allergic Contact (*ET); Human; Patch Tests; Perfume (*AE);
JN- Contact Dermatitis 34( 2): 106-10
TI- Exposure to selected fragrance materials. A case study of fragrance-mix-positive eczema patients.
AU- Johansen JD; Rastogi SC;
PY- 1996 Feb
AB- The aim of the present study was to assess exposure to constituents of the fragrance mix from cosmetic products used by fragrance-mix-positive eczema patients. 23 products, which had either given a positive patch and/or use test in a total of 11 fragrance-mix-positive patients, were analyzed. In all cases, the use of these cosmetics completely or partly explained present or past episodes of eczema. Between 1 to 6 constituents of the fragrance mix were found in 22 out of 23 products. The cosmetics of all the patients sensitive to hydroxycitronellal, eugenol, cinnamic alcohol and alpha-amylcinnamic aldehyde were found to contain the respective substances. Exposure concentrations were seen to cover a large range. The content of hydroxycitronellal was, on average, 5 x higher in cosmetics from hydroxycitronellal-sensitive patients, compared to cosmetics from hydroxycitronellal-negative patients. It is concluded that exposure to constituents of the fragrance mix is common in fragrance-allergic patients with cosmetic eczema, and that the fragrance mix is a good reflection of actual exposure.
MH- Adolescence*; Adult*; Case Report; Cosmetics*; Dermatitis, Allergic Contact*; Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic*; Female; Human; Male; Middle Age*; Patch Tests*; Skin Diseases, Eczematous*;
JN- Food Chem Toxicol 26(11-12):921-6
TI- Allergic contact sensitization potential of hydroxycitronellal in humans.
AU- Ford RA; Api AM; Suskind RR;
PY- 1988 Nov-Dec
AB- Hydroxycitronellal, an important ingredient in fragrances, was studied for its sensitizing potential in human skin. Fifteen human maximization tests were conducted with hydroxycitronellal obtained from four different sources at induction concentrations from 5 to 12%. No reactions were induced at 5% in two separate panels while 10% sensitized 2/25 panelists in one test but none in a second. Induction at 12% produced sensitization in 8 of 11 tests. Impurities do not appear to be a sensitizing factor. There is some evidence that the l-stereoisomer is a less potent sensitizer than the d-stereoisomer. In an initial modified human repeat-insult patch-test two positive reactions to challenge were observed among 197 panelists, one at a concentration of 5% and the other at 7.5%. When 100 of the non-reacting panelists were re-exposed in the same way, allergic sensitization reactions appeared during the induction period with concentrations as low as 2.5%. When 28 sensitized panelists were exposed to 1% concentrations in a simulated use test, there were three reactors. A no-effect level for sensitization has not been determined although the lowest concentrations tested were in the product usage range.
MH- Adolescence; Adult; Aged; Dermatitis, Contact (*ET); Human; Middle Age; Patch Tests;
JN- Contact Dermatitis 18(2):81-3
TI- Fragrance sensitivity in coal miners.
AU- Goodfield MJ; Saihan EM;
PY- 1988 Feb
AB- In a prospective study, we have examined the incidence of fragrance sensitivity in Nottinghamshire coal miners. Our results confirm previous reports of an increased incidence of such sensitivity in miners (45%) when compared with both male (20%) and female (13%) non-miners. This increased incidence is not related to an increased use of perfumed cosmetics, but may be related to the use of a highly perfumed body lotion in subjects who already have a high incidence of irritant hand eczema. There was no significant increase in the rate of positive reactions to other applied allergens.
MH- Coal Mining (*); Dermatitis, Contact (*ET); Female; Human; Male; Perfume (*AE); Prospective Studies; Soaps (AE);
JN- Contact Dermatitis 13(4):258-65
TI- Immediate and delayed reactions to cosmetic ingredients.
AU- Emmons WW; Marks JG Jr;
PY- 1985 Oct
AB- The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and etiology of cutaneous reactions caused by cosmetics, with an emphasis on perfume sensitivity. 19 control subjects and 31 patch test clinic patients (16 with a history of adverse cosmetic reactions) were examined for sensitivity by history, open and patch testing using the North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) fragrance screening series and 11 other common allergens found in cosmetics. Contact urticaria was very frequent to certain chemicals; however, patients with a history of cosmetic sensitivity were not found to have a significant increase in positive reactions when compared to controls or patients with eczematous skin. 12 subjects had positive patch test reactions, most of which were not clinically relevant. 3 patients with a history of cosmetic sensitivity had positive reactions, only 1 of which was in the fragrance screening series (cinnamic alcohol). There were 6 reactions in patients with eczematous skin, 4 of which were to preservatives. 3 controls had positive reactions, each to thimerosal. A history of cosmetic sensitivity was not confirmed by open and closed skin testing in our subjects.
MH- Comparative Study; Cosmetics (*AE); Dermatitis, Contact (*ET); Female; Human; Male; Patch Tests; Perfume (AE); Sex Factors; Time Factors; Urticaria (*CI);